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Mechanism of AstaMed MYOTM

Astaxanthin Works on Muscle Metabolic Homeostasis

Natural astaxanthin is known for its unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Those properties protect mitochondrial function and cell signaling from oxidative damage, thus improving muscle metabolic homeostasis in the skeletal muscle in patients with sarcopenia.


The vivo and in-vitro data support the hypothesis. Natural astaxanthin works on membranes of cells and mitochondria, which strongly protects the membrane integrity. It leads to elevated mitochondrial function via improved lipid metabolism. In fact, it was demonstrated that astaxanthin improved Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1: an enzyme responsible for transferring fatty acid into mitochondria), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α: a protein to control mitochondrial function to maintain energy homeostasis in response to nutrient and signals), and Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5: a membrane protein which is involved in lipid energy expenditure) in some in-vitro studies.


Further, natural astaxanthin is also known for anti-inflammatory properties to inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. According to some vivo and in-vitro studies, astaxanthin improved sensitivity of insulin/Insulin-like growth factor signaling, which can improved an anabolic pathway of protein metabolism in skeletal muscle.

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Tocotrienol Enhances Astaxanthin’s Antioxidant Capacity

The correct mixture of antioxidants is more difficult to convert into pro-oxidants than a single antioxidant. Astaxanthin and tocotrienols are known as a combination difficult to convert into pro-oxidants. In addition, tocotrienols bestow a synergistic effect to enhance astaxanthin’s antioxidant function.

Zinc Enhances an Internal Anti-Oxidant via a Different Route

Zinc is recognized as a cofactor of Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1: an antioxidant enzyme located in Cytoplasm), which is an enzyme that catalyzes dismutation of superoxide radicals into oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. It also promotes the GSH-GSSG redox cycle, which is different from that of astaxanthin’s antioxidant function, since astaxanthin mainly affects singlet oxygen or lipid peroxidation. Thus, zinc may have positive effects on sarcopenia by promoting the expression of SOD1, consequently enhancing intracellular antioxidant capacity.

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Vitamin D3 Binds to Specific Receptors that Activate Protein Metabolism in the Bones

Vitamin D3 activates the vitamin D receptors that are tightly linked to increased protein synthesis in the skeletal muscle cells. Vitamin D is also associated with the calcium channel, which indirectly exerts a positive influence on protein metabolism. Furthermore, in conjunction with adequate levels of calcium, Vitamin D reduces the risk of bone fracture in elderly and frail patients, including those with sarcopenia. Vitamin D receptor protein is also known to play a role in modulating intramuscular inflammation by mediating interleukin (IL)-6 protein. Thus, Vitamin D also contributes to decreased protein degradation by inhibiting activation of the IL-6 and NF-κB.

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